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When the Germans depart, the group splits up and leaves the ghetto. In Sosnowiec, Vladek and Anja move from one hiding place to the next, making occasional contact with other Jews in hiding.
Vladek disguises himself as an ethnic Pole and hunts for provisions. The couple arrange with smugglers to escape to Hungary, but it is a trick—the Gestapo arrest them on the train as Hungary is invaded and take them to Auschwitz , where they are separated until after the war.
Art asks after Anja's diaries, which Vladek tells him were her account of her Holocaust experiences and the only record of what happened to her after her separation from Vladek at Auschwitz, and which Vladek says she had wanted Art to read.
Vladek comes to admit that he burned them after she killed herself. Art is enraged, and calls Vladek a "murderer". The story jumps to , after the first six chapters of Maus have appeared in a collected edition.
Art is overcome with the unexpected attention the book receives  and finds himself "totally blocked". Art talks about the book with his psychiatrist Paul Pavel, a Czech Holocaust survivor.
Art replies with a quote from Samuel Beckett: Vladek tells of his hardship in the camps, of starvation and abuse, of his resourcefulness, of avoiding the selektionen —the process by which prisoners were selected for further labor or execution.
As the war progresses and the German front is pushed back, the prisoners are marched from Auschwitz in occupied Poland to Gross-Rosen within the Reich, and then to Dachau , where the hardships only increase and Vladek catches typhus.
The war ends, the camp survivors are freed, and Vladek and Anja reunite. The book closes with Vladek turning over in his bed as he finishes his story and telling Art, "I'm tired from talking, Richieu, and it's enough stories for now.
An aunt poisoned their first son Richieu to avoid capture by the Nazis four years before Spiegelman's birth. Spiegelman developed an interest in comics early and began drawing professionally at Shortly after he got out, his mother committed suicide.
Spiegelman said that when he bought himself a German Volkswagen it damaged their already-strained relationship "beyond repair".
The discussions in those fanzines about making the Great American Novel in comics inspired him. Spiegelman became a key figure in the underground comix movement of the s, both as cartoonist and editor.
The tale was narrated to a mouse named " Mickey ". His father gave him further background information, which piqued Spiegelman's interest.
Spiegelman recorded a series of interviews over four days with his father, which was to provide the basis of the longer Maus.
He got detailed information about Sosnowiec from a series of Polish pamphlets published after the war which detailed what happened to the Jews by region.
The same year, he edited a pornographic , psychedelic book of quotations, and dedicated it to his mother. He moved back to New York from San Francisco in , which he admitted to his father only in , by which time he had decided to work on a "very long comic book".
American comic books were big business with a diversity of genres in the s and s,  but had reached a low ebb by the late s.
Maus came to prominence when the term " graphic novel " was beginning to gain currency. Will Eisner popularized the term with the publication in of A Contract with God.
The term was used partly to mask the low cultural status that comics had in the English-speaking world, and partly because the term "comic book" was being used to refer to short-form periodicals, leaving no accepted vocabulary with which to talk about book-form comics.
The first chapter of Maus appeared in December in the second issue of Raw  as a small insert; a new chapter appeared in each issue until the magazine came to an end in Every chapter but the last appeared in Raw.
Spiegelman struggled to find a publisher for a book edition of Maus ,  but after a rave New York Times review of the serial in August , Pantheon Books published the first six chapters in a volume  called Maus: Spiegelman was relieved that the book's publication preceded the theatrical release of the animated film An American Tail by three months, as he believed that the film, produced by Steven Spielberg 's Amblin Entertainment , was inspired by Maus and wished to avoid comparisons with it.
The book found a large audience, partly because of its distribution through bookstores rather than the direct market comic shops where comic books were normally sold.
Though Pantheon pushed for the term "graphic novel", Spiegelman was not comfortable with this, as many book-length comics were being referred to as "graphic novels" whether or not they had novelistic qualities.
He suspected the term's use was an attempt to validate the comics form, rather than to describe the content of the books. Pantheon collected the last five chapters in in a second volume subtitled And Here My Troubles Began.
Pantheon later collected the two volumes into soft- and hardcover two-volume boxed sets and single-volume editions.
It also has interviews with Spiegelman's wife and children, sketches, photographs, family trees, assorted artwork, and a DVD with video, audio, photos, and an interactive version of Maus.
Spiegelman dedicated Maus to his brother Richieu and his first daughter Nadja. Penguin Books obtained the rights to publish the initial volume in the Commonwealth in In support of the African National Congress 's cultural boycott in opposition to apartheid , Spiegelman refused to "compromise with fascism"  by allowing publication of his work in South Africa.
By , Maus had been translated into about thirty languages. Three translations were particularly important to Spiegelman: French, as his wife was French, and because of his respect for the sophisticated Franco-Belgian comics tradition; German, given the book's background; and Polish.
Poland was the setting for most of the book and Polish was the language of his parents and his own mother tongue. The Polish translation encountered difficulties; as early as , when Spiegelman planned a research visit to Poland, the Polish consulate official who approved his visa questioned him about the Poles' depiction as pigs and pointed out how serious an insult it was.
Publishers and commentators refused to deal with the book for fear of protests and boycotts. Demonstrators protested Maus ' s publication and burned the book in front of Gazeta ' s offices.
Bikont's response was to don a pig mask and wave to the protesters from the office windows. A few panels were changed for the Hebrew edition of Maus.
Based on Vladek's memory, Spiegelman portrayed one of the minor characters as a member of the Nazi-installed Jewish Police.
An Israeli descendant objected and threatened to sue for libel. Spiegelman redrew the character with a fedora in place of his original police hat, but appended a note to the volume voicing his objection to this "intrusion".
It had an indifferent or negative reception, and the publisher did not release the second volume. Spiegelman, like many of his critics, worries that "[r]eality is too much for comics It examines the choices Spiegelman made in the retelling of his father's memories, and the artistic choices he had to make—for example, when his French wife converts to Judaism , Spiegelman's character frets over whether to depict her as a frog, a mouse, or another animal.
The book portrays humans with the heads and tails of different species of animals; Jews are drawn as mice and other Germans and Poles as cats and pigs,  among others.
Spiegelman took advantage of the way Nazi propaganda films depicted Jews as vermin,  though he was first struck by the metaphor after attending a presentation where Ken Jacobs showed films of minstrel shows along with early American animated films, abundant with racial caricatures.
Healthy emotions tell every independent young man and every honorable youth that the dirty and filth-covered vermin, the greatest bacteria carrier in the animal kingdom, cannot be the ideal type of animal Away with Jewish brutalization of the people!
Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross! Jewish characters try to pass themselves off as ethnic Poles by tying pig masks to their faces, with the strings showing at the back.
Spiegelman shows this Jewishness by having her tail hang out of her disguise. According to art historian Andrea Liss , this may paradoxically enable the reader to identify with the characters as human, preventing the reader from observing racial characteristics based on facial traits, while reminding readers that racist classification is ever present.
In making people of each ethnicity look alike, Spiegelman hoped to show the absurdity of dividing people along such lines. Spiegelman has stated that "these metaphors When asked what animal he would make Israeli Jews , Spiegelman suggests porcupines.
In every respect other than their heads and tails, they act and speak as ordinary humans. To Marianne Hirsch , Spiegelman's life is "dominated by memories that are not his own".
This describes the relation of the children of survivors with the survivors themselves. While these children have not had their parents' experiences, they grow up with their parents' memories—the memory of another's memory—until the stories become so powerful that for these children they become memories in their own right.
The children's proximity creates a "deep personal connection" with the memory, though separated from it by "generational distance". Art tried to keep his father's story chronological, because otherwise he would "never keep it straight".
Hirsch sees Maus in part as an attempt to reconstruct her memory. Vladek keeps her memory alive with the pictures on his desk, "like a shrine", according to Mala.
Spiegelman displays his sense of guilt in many ways. He suffers anguish over his dead brother, Richieu, who perished in the Holocaust, and whom he feels he can never live up to.
When she berates him, a victim of antisemitism, for his attitude, he replies, "It's not even to compare, the schwartsers and the Jews!
The Germans are depicted with little difference between them, but there is great variety among the Poles and Jews who dominate the story.
Spiegelman shows numerous instances of Poles who risked themselves to aid Jews, and also shows antisemitism as being rife among them.
The kapos who run the camps are Poles, and Anja and Vladek are tricked by Polish smugglers into the hands of the Nazis. Anja and Vladek hear stories that Poles continue to drive off and even kill returning Jews after the war.
Vladek's English is broken in contrast with that of Art's more fluent therapist, Paul Pavel, who is also an immigrant and Holocaust survivor.
He also uses it to befriend a Frenchman, and continues to correspond with him in English after the war.
His recounting of the Holocaust, first to American soldiers, then to his son, is never in his mother tongue,  and English becomes his daily language when he moves to America.
I was very religious, and it wasn't else to do". This unidiomatic expression was used as the subtitle of the second volume.
The German word Maus is cognate to the English word "mouse",  and also reminiscent of the German verb mauscheln , which means "to speak like a Jew"  and refers to the way Jews from Eastern Europe spoke German  —a word not etymologically related to Maus , but distantly to Moses.
Spiegelman's perceived audacity in using the Holocaust as his subject was compounded by his telling the story in comics. The prevailing view in the English-speaking world held comics as inherently trivial,  thus degrading Spiegelman's subject matter, especially as he used animal heads in place of recognizably human ones.
Ostensibly about the Holocaust, the story entwines with the frame tale of Art interviewing and interacting with his father. Art's "Prisoner on the Hell Planet" is also encompassed by the frame, and stands in visual and thematical contrast with the rest of the book as the characters are in human form  in a surreal , German Expressionist woodcut style inspired by Lynd Ward.
Spiegelman blurs the line between the frame and the world, such as when neurotically trying to deal with what Maus is becoming for him, he says to his wife, "In real life you'd never have let me talk this long without interrupting.
Spiegelman started taking down his interviews with Vladek on paper, but quickly switched to a tape recorder,  face-to-face or over the phone.
The principal problem in the design of the Maus was developing an engine and drivetrain which was powerful enough to adequately propel the tank, yet small enough to fit inside it — as it was meant to use the same sort of "hybrid drive", using an internal-combustion engine to operate an electric generator to power its tracks with electric motor units, much as its Ferdinand Porsche -designed predecessors, the VK P , VK P , and Elefant had.
The Maus was intended to punch holes through enemy defences in the manner of an immense "breakthrough tank", whilst taking almost no damage to any components.
The basic design known as the VK Work on the design began in earnest; the first prototype, to be ready in was initially to receive the name Mammut Mammoth.
This was reportedly changed to Mäuschen Little Mouse in December and finally to Maus Mouse in February , which became the most common name for this tank.
The Maus was designed from the start to use the "electric transmission" design which Ferdinand Porsche had used in the VK P , his unsuccessful attempt to win the production contract for the Tiger.
The initial powerplant was the Daimler-Benz MB gasoline engine, an adaptation of Germany's largest displacement at Each set of tracks had a suspension design containing a total of 24 road wheels per side, in six bogie sets, staggered to be spread over the entire width of the track.
Due to the return "run" of the uniquely wide tracks used being completely enclosed within the fixed outer side armor panels that defined its overall hull width, with the inner vertical lengthwise walls of the hull used to mount the suspension components, a narrow lengthwise "tub" remained between the hull's inner armored walls, under and to the rear of the turret to house the engine and generator of the tank's powertrain.
The armour was substantial: The turret armour was even thicker, the turret front was up to millimetres 9.
The gun mantlet was millimetres 9. The initial plan for the Maus was for the prototype to have been completed by mid, with monthly production scheduled to run at ten vehicles per month after delivery of the prototype.
The work on the Maus would be divided between Krupp , responsible for the chassis, armament and turret and Alkett , who would be responsible for final assembly.
By May , a wooden mockup of the final Maus configuration was ready and presented to Hitler, who approved it for mass production, ordering a first series of At this point, the estimated weight of the Maus was tons.
In his book Panzer Leader , Heinz Guderian wrote:. It was intended to mount a mm gun. The total weight of the tank was supposed to reach tons. It should be considered that after the design changes on Hitler's instructions the tank will weigh tons.
The model didn't have a single machine gun for close combat, and for this reason I had to reject it. It had the same design flaw that made the Elefant unsuitable for close combat.
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Maus ranked highly on comics and literature lists. The Comics Journal called it the fourth greatest comics work of the 20th century,  and Wizard placed it first on their list of Greatest Graphic Novels.
Books — The best reads from to ,  and Time put Maus at seventh place on their list of best non-fiction books from between and ,  and fourth on their list of top graphic novels.
Early installments of Maus that appeared in Raw inspired the young Chris Ware to "try to do comics that had a 'serious' tone to them".
In , cartoonist Ted Rall had an article published in The Village Voice criticizing Spiegelman's prominence and influence in the New York cartooning community.
Hellman followed up by posting fake responses from New York magazine editors and art directors. A cottage industry of academic research has built up around Maus ,  and schools have frequently used it as course material in a range of fields: Marianne Hirsch wrote an influential essay on post-memory called "Family Pictures: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory.
Few approached Maus who were familiar with comics, largely because of the lack of an academic comics tradition— Maus tended to be approached as Holocaust history or from a film or literary perspective.
According to writer Arie Kaplan, some Holocaust survivors objected to Spiegelman making a comic book out of their tragedy.
Harvey argued that Spiegelman's animal metaphor threatened "to erode [ Maus ' s] moral underpinnings",  and played "directly into [the Nazis'] racist vision".
Commentators such as Peter Obst and Lawrence Weschler expressed concern over the Poles' depiction as pigs,  which reviewer Marek Kohn saw as an ethnic slur  and The Norton Anthology of American Literature called "a calculated insult".
Literary critic Walter Ben Michaels found Spiegelman's racial divisions "counterfactual". To Michaels, Maus seems to gloss over the racial inequality that has plagued the history of the U.
Other critics, such as Bart Beaty, objected to what they saw as the work's fatalism. Scholar Paul Buhle asserted, "More than a few readers have described [Maus] as the most compelling of any [Holocaust] depiction, perhaps because only the caricatured quality of comic art is equal to the seeming unreality of an experience beyond all reason.
The book reproduced every page and line of dialogue from the French translation of Maus. Spiegelman's French publisher, Flammarion , had the Belgian publisher destroy all copies under charges of copyright violation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the graphic novel. For other uses, see Maus disambiguation.
This spelling was chosen for Maus as it was deemed the easiest spelling for English speakers to pronounce correctly. Her name became Anna when she and Vladek arrived in the US.
The Art of Comics: Documentary Graphic Novels and Social Realism. Ahrens, Jörn; Meteling, Arno Comics and the City: Urban Space in Print, Picture, and Sequence.
Continuum International Publishing Group. Animals, Identity, and Representation. The Comics of Chris Ware: Drawing Is a Way of Thinking. University Press of Mississippi.
University of Minnesota Press. Chute, Hillary L Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics. Duncan, Randy; Smith, Matthew J The Power of Comics.
Comic Book Collections for Libraries. The Art of the Comic Book: Visits With Contemporary Cartoonists. In Shatzky, Joel; Taub, Michael.
The Holocaust of Texts: Genocide, Literature, and Personification. University of Chicago Press. Identity and Representation in Maus ".
Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed! From Krakow to Krypton: Jews and Comic Books. The Norton Anthology of American Literature.
Art Spiegelman's Maus ". History and Memory After Auschwitz. Literature, Testimony, and the Question of Holocaust Survival. Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust.
In Williams, Paul; Lyons, James. The Rise of the American Comics Artist: Complicity, the Holocaust, and Slavery in America.
University of Virginia Press. McGlothlin, Erin Heather Marking Time in Art Spiegelman's Maus ". Legacies of Survival and Perpetration.
Meskin, Aaron; Cook, Roy T. Maupin House Publishing, Inc. Comics, Manga, and Graphic Novels: A History of Graphic Narratives. Pustz, Matthew J Inside the World of Comic Books.
Silberstein, Laurence Jay, ed. New York University Press. How the Industry Works. Rosen, Alan Charles University of Nebraska Press.
The Demands of Holocaust Representation. How Clark Kent Surpassed Superman". The Contemporary Comic Book Superhero. In Royal, Derek Parker.
Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. Recalling the Genocide Through Cartoon". Originally in Oral History Journal Vol.
Narrating the Traumas of Political Violence. Faster than a Speeding Bullet: The Rise of the Graphic Novel. Williams, Paul; Lyons, James The Languages of Jewish American Literature.
Comic Books as History: Reading and Teacher Strategies. Meaning and Representation in History. Oral History Association Spring: Chute, Hillary Summer History and Graphic Representation in "Maus " ".
Frahm, Ole May Gordon, Andrew Spring Jannequin, Jean-Paul April Groth, Gary , ed. McGlothlin, Erin Heather May Narrative and Time in Art Spiegelman's Maus".
Testimonial, Autobiographical and Historical Space in Maus ". The Maus was too heavy to cross bridges. As a result, an alternative system was developed, where the Maus would instead ford the rivers it needed to cross.
Due to its size it could ford relatively deep streams, but for deeper ones it was to submerge and drive across the river bottom.
The solution required tanks to be paired up. One Maus would supply electrical power to the crossing vehicle via a cable until it reached the other side.
The crew would receive air through a large snorkel , which was long enough for the tank to go 7. In March [ citation needed ] the second prototype, the V2, was delivered.
It differed in many details from the V1 prototype. In mid, the V2 prototype was fitted with a powerplant and the first produced Maus turret.
The V1 prototype was supposed to be fitted with the second produced turret, but this never happened. By July , Krupp was in the process of producing four more Maus hulls, but they were ordered to halt production and scrap these.
Krupp stopped all work on it in August Meanwhile, the V2 prototype started tests in September , fitted with a Daimler-Benz MB diesel engine,  new electric steering system and a Skoda Works designed running gear and tracks.
The working Maus prototypes remained at Kummersdorf after being tested at Böblingen. V2 ended at the Hindenburgplatz, in front of the bunker Maybach I, where it was destroyed by placing charges in the engine and fighting compartments.
Because it had ammunition stowed under the turret, it was damaged more extensively than V1, with the turret being more or less intact.
Maus V1 did not reach this area. After the war, the Soviet Commander of Armored and Mechanized troops ordered the hull of V1 to be mated with the turret of V2.
The Soviets used six German FAMO-built 18t German half-tracks , the largest half-track vehicles that Germany built in the war years, to pull the 55 ton turret off the destroyed hull.
When further testing was completed the vehicle was taken over by the Kubinka Tank Museum for storage where it is now on display.
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